Law and Policy

for Sustainable Development

of the Russian Arctic



The Arctic region is one of the most fragile and environmentally important regions on the planet. Today, it is facing increasingly larger threats including climate change, habitat loss and land fragmentation from infrastructure and industrial development, chemical pollution, the disappearance of traditional activities and knowledge of the northern indigenous peoples.

The book “Law and Policy for Sustainable Development of the Russian Arctic” (Elena Gladun, Hubertus von Dressler, Johannes Kamp) is the result of collaborative research project of the University of Tyumen and its German partner universities. It is the first experience of the University of Tyumen to publish thematic books in English. The primary objective is to introduce ideas of sustainable development and the system of sustainable land management to Russian students and to encourage them to study global problems. The book might be interesting for international readers as it discusses the specifics of Arctic land policy and law in the Russian Federation.

The scope of the book is description of the Arctic regions, mostly in the Russian Federation, and the frameworks of legal regulations of the Arctic land use in the period of industrial development and increasing environmental impacts. The objective is to give an overview of the existing policies and laws and outline the most effective legal mechanisms which provide for sustainable development of the Arctic. A part of the book is devoted to a scenarios planning exercise – presenting the ideas of how the Arctic and, especially, the Yamal region can be developing in the near future.


The book is written with the support of V. Potanin Foundation. The authors also wish to express their appreciation and gratitude to Dr. Gerhard Clemens and Yuliana Griewald who contributed a lot to the scenarios development and the study of the sustainable development in the Tyumen Region.



Sustainable development

The idea of sustainability

Definitions of sustainable development

The evolution of the ”sustainablility” approach

Sustainable development in international regulations

Goals of sustainable development in the new millennium

Sustainable Land Management


The Arctic region: industrial development and environmental impacts

Definition of the Arctic

Characteristics of the Arctic region

Environmental problems

Natural resources and industrial development

Arctic lands


Arctic legal regime

Arctic law

International regulations

Industry regulations

Soft law

State sovereignty over Arctic territories

Domestic law

Transboundary private law


Implementation of sustainable development at the domestic level

States’ compliance with the Arctic law

Compliance and enforcement

Means of compliance and enforcement

Environmental impact assessment as a specific tool of sustainable development


Spatial planning as a way to sustainable development

Definition of land-use planning

Land-use planning at different levels in the state

People in land-use planning

Concept and expansion of spatial planning

Landscape approach in spatial planning

System of landscape planning

Goals of landscape planning


Russian policy and regulations of land use

The framework of land-use regulations in Russia

Land-use planning in Russia

Spatial planning in Russia

Landscape planning in Russia

Land management in Russia

Land use in Yamal region

Land management in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Distrct


Indigenous peoples and land use

Peoples in the Arctic

Challenges to the northern indigenous peoples

Land use of indigenous peoples

International and domestic regulations of indigenous land use


Scenario development to explore the future of land use in the Arctic region

What is scenario planning?

The future of the Arctic

Global scenarios suggested by Finnish Meteorological Institute

National scenarios

Scenarios of regional development – Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District